Difference between air and medical oxygen
Medical oxygen contains up to 98 percent pure oxygen. It does not contain impurities such as moisture, dust or other gas. In 2015, Oxigen was added to the country’s list of essential medicines. WHO has also added oxygen to essential medicine. The air present in the atmosphere contains only 21 percent oxygen, so it cannot be used in medical emergency. That is why medical oxygen is prepared in liquid form in a large scientific plant in a special scientific manner.
How medical oxygen is made
Pure oxygen is first isolated from the atmosphere. The air contains up to 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen and other 1 percent gases like argon, helium, neon, krypton, gynone. In all these gases, the boiling point is very low, but different. The boiling point of oxygen is -183.0 ° C. Oxygen separates by cooling the air considerably. All the gases will turn into liquid on cooling after depositing the air. Separate them and submit them in liquid form. In this way up to 99.5 percent liquid oxygen is prepared. Before the process, the air is cooled by removing moisture, dust and oil and other impurities through the filter.
What happens to a boiling point
After cooling the water to 0 ° C, it turns into ice. If the same water is heated to 100 ° C, it boils and turns into steam, which turns into gas. In the same way, all the gases present in the atmosphere are boiled at very low temperatures to become gases. Oxygen is converted to gas by boiling at -183 ° C. We can also say that if the oxygen is cooled to more than -183 ° C, it will turn into liquid.
Oxygen is delivered this way
Manufacturers store liquid oxygen in large tankers. Then the cold ones are sent from the cryogenic tankers to the distributors. By reducing the pressure of oxygen, it is filled in various types of cylinders in the form of gas. These cylinders are delivered to hospitals, suppliers and the needy. Some large hospitals also have their own small oxygen generation plants.
Why is there a lack of oxygen
Before Kovid-19, the daily consumption of medical oxygen in the country was 1000 to 1200 MT. Now cases of corona are increasing continuously. Oxygen is currently proving effective in treating infections. This is the reason that now about 5000 metric tons of oxygen is needed daily in India. Health Minister Satyendar Jain of Delhi Government said on Tuesday night that Delhi needs 700 metric tons of oxygen. Supply is facing difficulties due to high demand. Only 1200 to 1500 cryogenic tankers are available to transport liquid oxygen to the distributor. Even at the distributor level, there is a shortage of empty cylinders to convert liquid oxygen into gas and fill it into cylinders.
550 liters of oxygen in 24 hours
When an adult person is not doing any kind of work, then he needs 7 to 8 liters of air per minute to breathe. That is, about 11 thousand liters of air daily. The air passing through the lungs contains 20 percent oxygen, while the exhaled breath contains 15 percent oxygen. Only 5 percent of oxygen is converted into carbon dioxide. According to experts, a person needs about 550 liters of pure oxygen in 24 hours. Physical workers need more oxygen.
Usually 7 cubic meter capacity cylinders
The hospital usually uses an oxygen cylinder of 7 cubic meters capacity. Its height is about 4 feet 6 inches. It has a capacity of 47 liters, but the pressure can fill up to 7000 liters of oxygen. If this cylinder gives oxygen to a patient continuously, it can last up to 20 hours. The government has fixed the maximum price of 1 cubic meter liquid medical oxygen at Rs 15.22 and the price of medical oxygen at Rs 25.71. It has a separate GST charge.
Oxygen supply restricted for industrial purposes
Union Health Minister Dr. Harsh Vardhan said today that the Government of India is taking several steps to increase the supply of oxygen in hospitals. The supply of oxygen for industrial purposes will be restricted from 22 April 2021 until further orders. This will allow the available surplus oxygen to be used as a medical oxygen. This does not apply to 9 industries, including injection and vial, pharmaceutical, steel plants, oxygen cylinder manufacturers, petroleum industries etc. According to the information, Reliance, Tata Steel, SAIL, Jindal Steel have started supplying Oxigen for the treatment of Corona. IFFCO, a cooperative society, is also setting up an oxygen plant, from where hospitals will supply free oxygen. With an investment of Rs 30 crore, it will set up 4 medically oxygen plants at Amla in Uttar Pradesh, Phulpur, Kalol in Gujarat and Paradip in Odisha. It will take about 15 days for these plants to become operational.
Centralized oxygen tanks in large hospitals
Some large hospitals have a centralized oxygen cabin or tank, from where the bed on which oxygen is needed is supplied through a pipeline. In smaller hospitals, oxygen is delivered to larger cylinders, then through the pipeline to the patient’s bed. Very small hospitals, where there is no pipeline facility, are fitted with small cylinders of oxygen near the patient’s bed.
Providing oxygen through non-rebinding mask is more effective
Oxigen is no less than a panacea for covid-infected patients. Many patients are benefiting from this. How should the patient be given oxygen? On this, Dr. Smit Vadher told that it would be more effective if you give oxygen to the corona infected through non rebinding mask (NRM). In this, highflow oxygen can be given to any patient. In NRM, the patient does not get outside air. It has to be attached to the oxygen cylinder with tubing. Masks are then worn covering the nose and mouth of the patient. Then oxygen saturation has to be seen through pulse oximeter. It is important to note that the patient’s saturation remains above 95.
For example, if the patient’s saturation 88 is coming from the flow of 4 liters per minute, then the patient needs more oxygen. Its flow will have to increase. If saturation goes above 92 at 5 liters per minute flow, then it can be considered fine. Provide oxygen with the same flow for one to two days. Then reduce the flow later to see if the patient’s saturation is not decreasing. If normal saturation is not coming, the flow will have to increase. Patients may also have to be given medications such as dexamethasone / methylpredisolone. This helps to open the respiratory tubes. If NRM is not found, then simple masks can also be used.
18% GST removed from oxygen cylinder
Satish Mahajan of Jalandhar Enterprises says that ‘I have a medicine job in Bhagirath Place. We sell 10 liter oxygen cylinders. We get it for 4500 rupees, which we sell for around 5000 rupees. In this, 18 percent GST is levied separately. There is a demand from the government that if the GST is removed in the time of epidemic, then the needy will get some benefit. In addition to these cylinders, the flowmeter has to be taken separately, which has a clock. On the doctor’s instruction, oxygen is given to the patient by setting the flowmeter. There is a shortage of flowmeters in the market. The cylinder may be found, but is useless without a flowmeter. A cylinder of 10 liters can give oxygen for 4 to 5 hours to a patient. The price of an oxygen concentrator, which is available in the market for 30 to 35 thousand rupees, has also reached 50 thousand rupees. Patients with money are buying it. Those who have less money are keeping cylinders at home.
Oxygen concentrator is also missing
Burari’s oxygen supplier Arun Kashyap said that “We supply oxygen in government and private hospitals.” In the current situation, we are not able to supply. Even after the advance payment, the manufacturer is unable to provide the stock. There are a lot of calls from hospitals. Refilling is not happening in the market as well. In ordinary days, a 10 liter cylinder was filled for 300 rupees. Now even if someone is paying a high price, work is not being done. Oxygen concentrator is also not available in the market. We also supply homecare oxygen with hospitals. Hospitals have iron cylinders in which keys are used. It is heavy. At the same time, aluminum cylinders are a bit expensive, which women also operate at home. It can be picked up easily. It is used in transporting the patient from home to the hospital.